Конспект информации, освоенной во время изучения языка.

Неправильные глаголы

Infinitive Past Simple Past Participle
be was been
bear bore born(e)
beat beat beaten
become became become
begin began begun
bite bit bitten
blow blew blown
break broke broken
bring brought brought
build built built
burn burnt burnt
burst burst burst
buy bought bought
can could (been able to)
catch caught caught
choose chose chosen
come came come
cost cost cost
cut cut cut
deal dealt dealt
dig dug dug
do did done
draw drew drawn
dream dreamt dreamt
drink drank drunk
drive drew drawn
eat ate eaten
fall fell fallen
feed fed fed
feel felt felt
fight fought fought
find found found
fly flew flown
forbid forbade forbidden
forget forgot forgotten
freeze froze frozen
get got got
give gave given
go went gone
grow grew grown
hang hung hung
have had had
hear heard heard
hide hid hidden
hit hit hit
hold held held
hurt hurt hurt
keep kept kept
know knew known
lay laid laid
lead led led
learn learnt learnt
leave left left
lend lent lent
let let let
lie lay lain
light lit lit
lose lost lost
make made made
mean meant meant
meet met met
pay paid paid
put put put
read read read
ride rode ridden
ring rang rung
rise rose risen
run ran run
say said said
see saw seen
seek sought sought
sell sold sold
send sent sent
set set set
sew sewed sewn
shake shook shaken
shine shone shone
shoot shot shot
show showed shown
shut shut shut
sing sang sung
sit sat sat
sleep slept slept
smell smelt smelt
speak spoke spoken
spell spelt spelt
spend spent spent
spill spilt spilt
split split split
spoil spoilt spoilt
spread spread spread
spring sprang sprung
stand stood stood
steal stole stolen
stick stuck stuck
sting stung stung
strike struck struck
swear swore sworn
sweep swept swept
swim swam swum
take took taken
teach taught taught
tear tore torn
tell told told
think thought thought
throw threw thrown
understand understood understood
wake woke woken
wear wore worn
win won won
write wrote written


— Johnny, do you know where the Pyramids are?
— No, miss, they must be lost. There was a teacher here yesterday asking the same question.
  1. A/An is used with singular countable nouns when we talk about things in general.
    An aeroplane is faster than a train.
    (Which aeroplane? Aeroplanes in general.)
    A greengrocer sells vegetables.
    (Which greengrocer? Greengrocers in general.)
  2. We often use a/an after the verbs to be and to have.
    He is a photographer. He has got a camera.
  3. We do not use a/an with uncountable or plural nouns. We can use some instead.
    Would you like some tea? Yes, please! And I'd like some biscuits.
  4. The is used before singular and plural nouns, both countable and uncountable when we are talking about something specific or when the noun is mentioned for a second time.
    The boy who has just left is my cousin. (Which boy? Not any boy. The specific boy, the boy who has just left.)
    There is a cat on the sofa. The cat is sleeping. ("The cat" is mentioned for a second time.)
  5. We use the with the words cinema, theatre, radio, country(side), seaside, beach, etc.
    We go to the beach every Sunday.
  6. We use both a/an or the before a singular countable noun to represent a class of people, animals or things.
    A/The dolphin is more intelligent than a/the shark. (We mean dolphins and sharks in general.)
    ALSO: Dolphins are more intelligent than sharks.

The is also used before:

  1. nouns which are unique.
    Haven't you been to the Acropolis yet?
  2. names of cinemas (the Odeon), hotels (the Hilton), theatres (the Rex), museums (the Prado), newspapers (the Times), ships (the Queen Mary).
  3. names of rivers (the Thames), seas (the Black Sea), groups of islands/states (the Bahamas, the USA), mountain ranges (the Alps), deserts (the Gobi desert), oceans (the Pacific) and names with ... of (The Tower of London).
  4. musical instruments.
    Can you play the guitar?
  5. names of people / families / nationalities in the plural.
    the Smiths, the English, the Dutch etc.
  6. titles without proper names.
    the Queen, the President
  7. adjectives used as plural nouns (the rich) and the superlative degree of adjectives / adverbs (the best).
    He's the most intelligent student of all.

The is omitted before:

  1. proper nouns.
    Paula comes from Canada.
  2. names of sports, activities, colours, substances and meals.
    He plays tennis well.
    She likes blue.
    Coke isn't expensive.
    Lunch is ready.
  3. names of countries (England), cities (London), streets (Bond Street), parks (Hyde Park), mountains (Everest), islands (Cyprus), lakes (Lake Michigan), continents (Europe).
  4. the possessive case or possessive adj.
    This isn't your coat, it's Kate's.
  5. the words "home" and "Father/Mother" when we talk about our own home/parents.
    Father isn't at home.
  6. titles with proper names.
    Queen Elizabeth, President Kennedy
  7. bed, school, church, hospital, prison, when they are used for the reason they exist.
    John was sent to prison.
    BUT: His mother went to the prison to visit him last week.