Конспект информации, освоенной во время изучения языка.
|Infinitive||Past Simple||Past Participle|
|can||could||(been able to)|
— Johnny, do you know where the Pyramids are?— No, miss, they must be lost. There was a teacher here yesterday asking the same question.
A/An is used with singular countable nouns when we talk about things in general.
An aeroplane is faster than a train.(Which aeroplane? Aeroplanes in general.)A greengrocer sells vegetables.(Which greengrocer? Greengrocers in general.)
We often use a/an after the verbs to be and to have.
He is a photographer. He has got a camera.
We do not use a/an with uncountable or plural nouns. We can use some instead.
Would you like some tea? Yes, please! And I'd like some biscuits.
The is used before singular and plural nouns, both countable and uncountable when we are talking about something specific or when the noun is mentioned for a second time.
The boy who has just left is my cousin. (Which boy? Not any boy. The specific boy, the boy who has just left.)There is a cat on the sofa. The cat is sleeping. ("The cat" is mentioned for a second time.)
We use the with the words cinema, theatre, radio, country(side), seaside, beach, etc.
We go to the beach every Sunday.
We use both a/an or the before a singular countable noun to represent a class of people, animals or things.
A/The dolphin is more intelligent than a/the shark. (We mean dolphins and sharks in general.)ALSO: Dolphins are more intelligent than sharks.
The is also used before:
nouns which are unique.
Haven't you been to the Acropolis yet?
- names of cinemas (the Odeon), hotels (the Hilton), theatres (the Rex), museums (the Prado), newspapers (the Times), ships (the Queen Mary).
- names of rivers (the Thames), seas (the Black Sea), groups of islands/states (the Bahamas, the USA), mountain ranges (the Alps), deserts (the Gobi desert), oceans (the Pacific) and names with ... of (The Tower of London).
Can you play the guitar?
names of people / families / nationalities in the plural.
the Smiths, the English, the Dutch etc.
titles without proper names.
the Queen, the President
adjectives used as plural nouns (the rich) and the superlative degree of adjectives / adverbs (the best).
He's the most intelligent student of all.
The is omitted before:
Paula comes from Canada.
names of sports, activities, colours, substances and meals.
He plays tennis well.She likes blue.Coke isn't expensive.Lunch is ready.
- names of countries (England), cities (London), streets (Bond Street), parks (Hyde Park), mountains (Everest), islands (Cyprus), lakes (Lake Michigan), continents (Europe).
the possessive case or possessive adj.
This isn't your coat, it's Kate's.
the words "home" and "Father/Mother" when we talk about our own home/parents.
Father isn't at home.
titles with proper names.
Queen Elizabeth, President Kennedy
bed, school, church, hospital, prison, when they are used for the reason they exist.
John was sent to prison.BUT: His mother went to the prison to visit him last week.